What's the Difference and Similarities between the Investment Education Investment Health When Associated with Economic Growth?

Posted by The New Economics Education

Niken Sulistyowati, et al (2010) says in his study "The improvement of education, leading to increased labor productivity. Increased productivity of labor and other production inputs lead to output increases. Increase in output leads to an increase government revenue. Effects could further encourage increased investment and infrastructure spending. "This suggests that investments in education have a positive impact on economic growth, the higher one's education investment will enhance economic growth.

While Arum Atmawikarta (2002) states "At the micro level, namely at the level of individual and family health is the basis for labor productivity and capacity to learn at school. A healthy workforce is physically and mentally more energetic and stronger, more productive, and earn a high income. At the macro level, residents with a level of good health is an input (input) is important for poverty reduction, economic growth, and long-term economic development. Some of the historical experience proves the success of economic takeoff, rapid economic growth is supported by a significant breakthrough in the field of public health, combating disease and improving nutrition. "So it can bdisimpulkan that health investment is also bringing a positive impact on a country's economic growth.

Based on the description it can be concluded that investments in education and health investment are equally positive effect on a country's economic growth rate. Both (between investments in education and health) are equally have an impact on the productivity of one's work, and which will have an impact on economic growth.

Good health investment with investment in education is to result in increased economic growth, but after research conducted by Rasidin K. Sitepu and M. Bonar Sinaga (2007) was the effect of health investment on economic growth in Indonesia is greater when compared to investments in education. One result of these studies is that in the event of an increase in government spending on education by 20%, increase real GDP by 2.19% nationally. While at the time there was an increase in government spending on health by 20%, increase real GDP by 3.68% nationally. In addition, at the end of his research conclusions Rasidin K. Sitepu and M. Bonar Sinaga (2007) says that "health investment can reduce poverty by a greater percentage when compared to investments in education."

Based on the description it can be concluded that the health investment over a big impact on economic growth when compared to health investment. In this health investment over a major effect on the national increase in real GDP and reduce poverty.
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Distance Education System

Posted by The New Economics Education

As a direct or conventional education system, distance education system also requires a supporting infrastructure of education, so that the general purpose of education can be realized accordance with education levels. Means of supporting usually a lesson modules are sent to students. Facilities can also implement information technology. The emergence of information and communication technologies in distance education is very helpful at all. As can be seen, with the advent of online education or web-school or cyber-school, using the internet facility. Systems approach to teaching is to do with teaching directly or by using the system as the concentration of knowledge. This allows the formation of an opportunity for anyone to participate in various educational levels from kindergarten through college (PT).

Unlike direct the education system, the system requires the management of distance education and educational management of "special", both from the students and the instructor (teacher) for educational purposes can be realized. Education must focus on the instructional needs of students.

From the instructor (teacher), several factors are important to the success of distance education systems is a concern, confident teachers, experience, easy to use equipment, creativity, active learning, and ability to establish interaction and communication with students remotely. Also consider the technical obstacles that may occur, so that distance education can take place effectively.

From the student side, one important factor is the seriousness of the following teaching and learning process at the time the instructor (teacher) does not deal directly with students. At this level, the involvement and the presence of 'the people' around, including a family member plays an important and strategic. Its presence can support the ongoing learning process effectively, but the opposite could also be a barrier. Another factor that is active learning and effective communication. Active participation of students of distance education affects how they relate to the material to be studied.

The success of distance education system supported by the interaction and effective communication and a maximum of teachers and students, interaction between students with different educational facilities such as modules mudul interaction between students with 'the people' around, and the patterns of education active in each of these interactions. Also liveliness and independence of students in the deepening of the material, do the exam, and creativity to find supporting material from other sources such as internet or digital-library.
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Definition of Learning Technology

Posted by The New Economics Education

Formulation of the notion of Learning Technology has undergone some changes, in line with the history and development of learning technology itself. Below are a few definitions of Instructional Technology that has an influence on the development of Learning Technologies.

Definitions Association for Educational Communications Technology (AECT) 1963
"Audio-visual communication is a branch of educational theory and practice that are primarily concerned with the design, and use the messages to control the learning process, include the following activities: (a) learn the weaknesses and strengths of a message in the learning process, (b) structuring and systematization by the and instruments in environmental education, including: planning, production, selection, management and utilization of the components and the overall learning system. The practical aim is the use of each method and medium of communication effectively to help learners to the maximum development potential."

Although still use the term audio-visual communication, the above definition has produced a basic framework for the subsequent development of Learning Technology and to encourage an increase in learning.

Commission definition on the Instruction Technology (CIT) 1970
"In a more general sense, is defined as a medium of learning technology that was born as a result of the communication revolution that can be used for teaching purposes in addition to teachers, textbooks, and the board ..... forming part of the learning technology is television, film, OHP, computer and the other hardware or software."

1994 AECT definition
"Instructional Technology is the theory and practice in the design, development, utilization, management and evaluation of processes and resources for learning."

Although formulated in a more simple sentences, this definition implies that in fact. This definition seeks to strengthen the learning technology as a field and profession, which must be supported by a foundation of solid theory and practice. This definition is also working to improve the region or area of ​​learning technology field activities. In addition, this definition is trying to emphasize the importance of process and product.

If we observe the contents of the content of learning technology definitions above, it appears from time to time undergone a process of learning technology "metamorphosis" to perfection. Which was originally only viewed as a means to a more extensive, than only to the practice-oriented theory and practice, from the product go to processes and products, and finally through the current evolutionary journey of learning technology has become a field and profession.

In line with the development and advancement of science and technology so rapidly, especially in education, psychology and communication it is not impossible in the future of learning technologies will increasingly continue to grow and strengthen themselves as a discipline and profession that can further benefit the achievement of effectiveness and learning efficiency.

Nevertheless, it must be admitted that the development of learning technology and professional fields in Indonesia is still arguably not optimal, both in terms of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation. Businesses would still need a genuine struggle of all parties related to learning technology, both from academics, researchers and practitioners.
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ABCD Learning Stated Objectives of the Good

Posted by The New Economics Education

ABCD of the goals stated by either giving us an easy process followed to determine the learning objectives.
Learning objectives to focus on what the pemelajar will know and can do so after the subject was over, and not what teachers do to teach them, then it is important to clearly identify the target pemelajar.

The essence of the destination is a verb that describes the new capabilities of the learners will have after teaching. This verb is most likely to communicate our goals clearly when expressed as observable behaviors. We must try to get the behavior or the performance of students who reflect a deep understanding of the real world and ability.

A statement of learning objectives should include the conditions under which performance will be assessed. In other words, the material or any device that is allowed or not allowed to wear menampilakan students in the mastery of these objectives.

Ultimate requirements of a well-stated objective is that it indicates the purpose of the standard or criteria for judging acceptable performance. The accuracy or fluency as to what should be shown by the learners.
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Essence of Education-Based Entrepreneurship

Posted by The New Economics Education

Superiority of a nation linked to the ability of its competitiveness with other nations. Necessary to be able to compete with the advantages of both competitive advantage (the ability of HR) and comparative (related to natural resources that are available). Competitiveness refers to the ability to compete a person, group, community or nation against individuals, groups, societies, or other people related to the value of competing against its competitors.

Entrepreneurship-based education is learning the values ​​of entrepreneurship through the planting and maintenance of habituation behavior and attitudes. The curriculum is made must refer to the needs of the nation's competitiveness, as well as vision and mission of the school in producing graduates. Changes in vision and mission is needed in order to produce graduates who are able to increase the competitiveness of the nation, the graduates are not just looking for work but also graduates who are able to create job opportunities.

Indeed, not all fields of science today can be applied in the real world let alone the corporate world, the challenge is to design a curriculum-based entrepreneurship. Curriculum-based entrepreneurship curriculum is expected to be the key that will be the measure of success of the school creates a highly competitive graduate job market.

Entrepreneurship education is one government program, especially the Ministry of National Education which aims to build and develop the creative human spirit, inovati, sportsmanship and self-employment. Entrepreneurship education is at the associate and integrate with other programs, such as character education, economic education and creative entrepreneurship education into school curricula. To build a spirit of entrepreneurship and increase entrepreneurs,

Learning system is currently not fully effective learners build a noble character and national character including the character of entrepreneurship. This is partly indicated by the relatively high unemployment, the number of entrepreneurs who are still relatively few, and moral degradation. Policies to tackle these problems, especially problems associated with entrepreneurship, among others, can be done by way of instilling entrepreneurship education into all subjects, teaching material, extracurricular, and personal development activities, developing educational curricula that provide entrepreneurial education payload that can enhance the understanding of entrepreneurship , cultivate character and entrepreneurship skills, and foster entrepreneurship culture in the school environment.

There are many entrepreneurial values ​​that are considered most essential and appropriate to developmental level of students as much as 17 (seventeen) value should be owned by students and citizens of other schools. Implementation of the core values ​​of entrepreneurship are not directly implemented by the education unit at the same time, but done in stages. The first phase of implementation of entrepreneurial values ​​taken 6 (six) core values, namely:
  1. Independent, is the attitude and behavior that is not easy to depend on others in completing tasks
  2. Creative, is thinking and doing things to make way for the results differ from the products / services that already exist 
  3. Dare to take risks, is the ability for someone to love the job yangmenantang, courageous and able to take the risk of work 
  4. Action-oriented is to take the initiative to act, and not wait, before an undesirable event occurs. 
  5. Leadership is an attitude and behavior of someone who is always open to suggestions and criticism, it is easy to get along, cooperate, and directing others
  6. Hard work, are behaviors that demonstrate serious efforts in completing tasks and overcome obstacles.
It is not meant to limit the planting of values ​​(internalization) of entrepreneurship to all school uniform, but every level of education units can internalize the values ​​of other entrepreneurial independently in accordance with school needs.

Quality education must be improved continuously. The quality of education related to quality processes and products. The quality of the process can be achieved when the learning takes place effectively and learners can experience and undergo the learning process significantly. Product quality is achieved when the students demonstrated a high level of mastery of tugastugas learn according to their needs and demands of life that needs to be applied kerja.untuk world of entrepreneurship education at all levels / levels of education. The education program targeted entrepreneurship education is a unit of education from early childhood education to upper secondary education and non formal education. Through this program are expected to graduate students in all types and levels of education, and citizens of other school has a soul and the spirit of entrepreneurship.
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Entrepreneurial Strategy: Generating and Exploiting New Business

Posted by The New Economics Education

One important effort in entrepreneurship are new ventures, new businesses include: 1. offers all new products to market; 2. offer an existing product; 3.menciptakan a new organisasai regardless of whether the product is new to competition or consumers.

Creation of a New Business Opportunities
Resources as a source of competitive advantage, when a company starting a new business, these resources can be combined to provide the capacity for firms to achieve superior performance yng, that resource becomes the basis of superior performance over its competitors, resources must be valuable, rare and can not be imitated.

To make a note of the growing business market and technological knowledge, and assess the benefits from new business opportunities.

Strategy for the Exploitation of Business New Business
Source of competitive advantage is to be the first in introducing new products or creating new business for the new venture could allow a profit that could improve performance. Hi this include:
  1. Develop an early mover advantage means the cost to be the first to sell a product on the market   
  2. Early mover competitive competition, the first few customers continues to grow and will eventually disappear 
  3. Early mover in the use of distribution channels, since the beginning have the opportunity to choose and develop strong relationships with suppliers and distribution channels of the most important.  
  4. Early mover in consumer satisfaction with goods dihasillkan taste, according to market share target  
  5. Early movers gain the skills learned through participation in existing products, to monitor changes in the market that it becomes difficult, building a network.
Consumer uncertainty and disadvantage First Mover
Introducing new products to the market that involves all the elements and there is no uncertainty for consumers about new products that are not convinced that the new product has the advantage of old products, and consumers are reluctant to move new keproduk, the proper way to introduce new products with advertising that is often through the media print and electronic, and with the direction or demonstrating new products at the show or efen-specific efen so that consumers could be interested and willing to become repeat customers.
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Internal Audit – Marketing

Posted by The New Economics Education

Marketing is the process of defining, pengantisipasian, creation and fulfillment of needs and desires of consumers for products and services. There are seven functions of marketing, namely:
Consumer Analysis
An observation and evaluasai needs, desires and wants of consumers. Consumer analysis involves the procurement of consumer surveys, analyzing consumer information, evaluating strategic market positioning, floating consumer profiles, market segmentation and the determination of the optimal strategy.

Sales of Products / Services
Sales include a lot of marketing activities, such as advertising, sales promotion, publicity, personal selling, sales force management, customer relations, and dealer relations.

Planning Products and Services
Planning products and services include various activities such as test marketing, product and brand positioning, use of the warranty, packaging, determining the choice of products, product features, product style, product quality, the removal of old products, and providing customer service. Test marketing is one of the techniques of planning products and services that are most effective as a test market allows an organization to test alternative marketing plans and new product sales forecasting.

Price Fixing
Five stakeholders (stakeholders) affect pricing decisions (pricing): consumers, government, suppliers, distributors, and competitors.

Distribution includes penggudangan, distribution channels, distribution coverage, location of retail, wolayah sales, inventory levels and locations, courier transport, wholesale, and retail. Distribution becomes very important when a company attempted to implement market development strategies or forward integration.

Market Research
Marketing research is the collection, recording and analyzing systematic data on the various issues regarding the marketing of goods and services. Marketing research activities to support all the main business functions of an organization.

Opportunity Analysis
The analysis involves assessing the opportunity costs, benefits and risks associated with marketing decisions. Three steps are required to make cost-benefit analysis (cost-benefit analysis): (1) calculate the total cost associated with a decision, (2) estimate the total benefits of the decision and (3) compare the total cost of the benefit. If the expected benefits exceed total costs, then it becomes more attractive opportunities.
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Aligning internal audit Are you on the right floor?

Posted by The New Economics Education

Organizational culture is a pattern of behavior that has developed an organization when the organization learned to cope with problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has proven successful enough to be considered valid and taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel.

Lorsch found that culture can be the success of a company but also can inhibit strategic management because:
  1. Sodium absorption ratio is often managers are able to see the changes in external conditions due to be made by the belief that they hold strongly.
  2. When a culture proved successful in the past and it will continue to be held despite major strategy change.
In order to successfully compete in world markets, managers must acquire a good knowledge about the power of historical, cultural and religious memoyivasi and encourage people in other countries.
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Resource Based View Perspective

Posted by The New Economics Education

Adherents believe that the RBV view of operational performance will be largely determined by internal resources are put into three categories:
  1. physical resources, including plant, machinery, raw materials etc.
  2.  human resources, including staff, training, experience, skills, etc. 
  3. organizational resources, including planning, information systems, patents, etc..
To be valuable, a resource should have an empirical indicators are rare, difficult to imitate and not easy to find a replacement. One can not say absolutely convinced that the external or internal factors that will always or consistently more important in achieving competitive advantage. But more important is how to understand the relationship between both factors.

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Types and Levels of Communication Word of Mouth (WOM)

Posted by The New Economics Education

Hughes (2005) suggested that the types of word of mouth communication (WOM) can be classified into two types: positive word of mouth communication and the communication of negative word of mouth. Positive WOM communication is the process of delivering information through word of mouth that made by one individual to another individual based on the experience that is positive about a product, service, or company. Meanwhile, negative WOM communication is a process of interaction of word of mouth that is based on negative experiences gained from one individual to another individual of a product, service or company.

Experience that is positive implies that the experience gained either an individual or individuals directly or indirectly to the use of a product, service or company along with the satisfaction or fulfillment of individual expectations. Conversely, negative experiences are the experiences gained in the individual either directly or indirectly, that is not accompanied by contentment. In other words, products or services consumed can not meet expectations (Hughes, 2005).

Associated with the types of WOM communications, Hughes (2005) classifies the word of mouth communication (WOM) to 9 level or levels that started from minus 4 to plus 4. At the level of minus 4, the information conveyed through word of mouth are the things that are negative, whereas the level of information conveyed plus 4 are the things that are positive. Positive WOM communication falls into tiers or levels plus 1 to plus 4, while negative WOM communication belong to the level of minus 1 to minus 4.

Levels of word of mouth communication (WOM) can be described as follows (Hughes (2005):
1.    Levels of minus 4
Levels of minus 4 describes a condition or state of talks about a product or a company that involves many people who complain or kornplain. At this level are often referred to as a public scandal, which means that all the people moving actively to seek out and advise not to use products or services of their respective companies. This situation could adversely impact the company's products bersangkuan even if no immediate action that is anticipatory of internal party companies.

2.    Minus 3 levels
Rate minus 3 describes the condition or circumstances regarding the use of a product or service that is experienced by individuals who continued with the provision of advice to other individuals not to use the product or service in question. Level is different from the level of minus 4 because it has not reached a public scandal.

3.    Depth minus 2
Level minus 2 describes the condition or state of dissatisfaction experienced by individuals associated with the use of the product or service. Dissatisfaction in this level is not indicated clearly in the sense that the individual concerned will not remain silent when asked a question related to the product, but dissatisfaction is shown clearly when the individual consulted associated with the same product.

4.    Levels minus 1
Rate minus 1 describes the condition or circumstances of the individuals who make complaints against a product or service indirectly. Although not active, the condition is still classified in negative WOM communication, so it needs to do a better marketing effort to minimize negative WOM.

5.    Levels of 0
Level 0 in WOM communication describes the condition or circumstances of the individual who uses a product or service without complaint or complaint or indicates satisfaction.

6.    Levels plus 1
Rate plus 1 illustrates the conditions or individual circumstances that indicate satisfaction gained in using a product or service by commenting that good or positive about the product or service.

7.    Levels plus 2
Level 2 in the drawing WOM communication conditions or individual circumstances that indicate its satisfaction for a product or service by providing a good or positive comments with great interest. At this level, the conventional marketing strategies contributed less meaningful because at this level need an accommodation to any individual situation still talk about the benefits of the product concerned.

8.    Levels plus 3
Level 3 describes the condition or circumstances of the individual who tried to convince other people about the advantages of a product or service or in other words, individuals try to convince other people that a particular product or service has a very good quality.

9.    Levels plus 4
Level 4 in WOM communication is the level or the highest level in this kind of positive WOM communication. At this level describes the condition of individuals who talk about the benefits of a product or service on an ongoing basis which means that the individual obtains satisfaction in using the product or service in question. In this stage, companies must be able to maintain customer satisfaction or if the consumer or customer because the customer was not met his expectations, then this level will be turned into a kind of negative WOM communication.
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Understanding Communication Word of Mouth (WOM)

Posted by The New Economics Education

The term communication comes from the Latin stage, namely commimicalio, derived from communis, which means the same. For example, if two people conversing, the conversation is said to be communicative if both, in addition to understand the language used, as well as understand the meaning of material dipercakapkan (Onong, 2001).

Communicative communication is needed in building a good relationship between individuals within families and communities. Similarly, in every organization, that communication is very important as an effective tool in promoting and developing the organizations concerned. Here, organizational communication includes information from the employer formally distributed to the subordinate (downward communication) from subordinates to superiors (upward communication), the co-worker (horizontal communication) or between superiors and subordinates in the different units in a organization (cross channel communication).

Related to communication that exist in an organization, according to Hoskins (2007) views of the nature of communication among them is word of mouth communication or oral communication. According to him, communication is necessary for the internal and external organizations. Communication for internal purposes is as a means of coordination, control, any activity or activities in the organization of individuals and communally (together) at the management level and at the level of staff or employees. Here, the organization according to Hoskins (2007) serves as a forum for direct interaction that requires word of mouth communication that is a form of cooperation between two or more people in achieving the objectives to be achieved together. This suggests that any activity that occurs in organizations is the interaction between members of the organization directly to one of them through word of mouth communications. With the communication, an organization alive and growing dynamically. Organization without a communication, will lead all activity stops.

Meanwhile, word of mouth communication to external stakeholders by Hoskins (2007) aims to establish relationships with other organizations or parties concerned. An important organizational relationships with organizations outside of himself. Dalarn business cooperation, the communication through word of mouth will be more effective to establish a good bond with the organization because Iain will be able to build a strong emotional bond.

Kotler & Keller (2007) suggests that word of mouth Communication (WOM) or by word of mouth communication is a communication process for the provision of advice either individually or in groups for a product or service that aims to provide personal information. Communication by word of mouth is one of the channels of communication that is often used by companies that produce both goods and services for communications and word of mouth (word of mouth) is considered very effective in expediting the process of marketing and be able to provide benefits to the company. According to Kotler & Keller (2007), personal communication channel in the form of greeting or word of mouth (word of mouth) may be an effective method of promotion because it is generally delivered from consumers by consumers and for consumers, so consumers or customers can be satisfied to media advertising for the company. In addition, personal communications channels of word of mouth, is relatively large due to the through satisfied customers, referrals or references to products of the company's production will be more easily spread to other consumers (Kotler & Keller, 2007).

In line with the previous opinion, Siverman (2001) suggests the effectiveness of word of mouth communication (WOM) is inseparable from the nature of the communication which he defines as follows: "A form of interpersonal communication consumers Concerning Their personal experiences with a firm or a product".

From the above definition, Siverman (2001) argues that communication is word of mouth (WOM) is an interpersonal communication that occurs between individuals one individual to another based on the experience possessed by each individual to a company or product either in the form of goods or services. Support the notion Siverman, Hughes (2005) suggested the same thing that the word of mouth communication (WOM) is an effective interpersonal communication in affecting a person's attitude as in conveying information about products or services as contained in the definition of word of mouth communication as follows: " Communication about products and service 'Between WHO people are perceived to he independent of the company Providing the product or services, ma medium perceived to be independent of the conipanv ".

Based on the above quote can be interpreted that communication is word of mouth (WOM) is an interpersonal communication between or among individuals about a product or service, with status as a party that has no ties with the companies that produce goods or services. In other words, act as consumers or customers of a particular company or product Hughes (2005).
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