Posted by The New Economics Education

Learning is the development of new knowledge, skills or individual behavior are also related to information and the environment. The learning environment includes the physical facilities, psychological air, technology, media and methods used. Basically the study can be done anywhere and anytime, but it usually involves a learning process between teachers and students.

This section will discuss about learning through psychological and philosophical perspective. 

a. Psychological Perspective in The Study 
In this perspective be seen from how an instructor plays the role of technology and media in the classroom will depend on how many of their beliefs about how people learn. There are four perspectives in this stage:

1) Perspective behavior 

Skinner, one of the supporters of this theory expressed interest in voluntary behaviors such as learning new skills, from the perilau done suddenly.
Proponents of this theory would reject a spelukasi in learning. The principles of behavior that apply in the study being done today is a computer-based instruction and networking.

2) Cognitive Perspective
New contribution in cognitive learning theory and design intruksional by creating a model in which learners receive, process and manipulate information.
Cognitive impairment associated with how people think, solve problems and make a decision. Kognotif create mental models of memory in the short and long term. When new information is received are not trained, then over time will be lost, so we need a workout. Cognitive theory has a broader perception of the learning behavior of the theory. The students should be as little as possible depending on the teacher's guide and should rely more on cognitive strategies used to obtain the learning resources.

3) Perspective Kontruktivistik

This perspective is an extension of the cognitive perspective. This perspective considering attachment experiences as a student with a learning experience. This Kontruktifistik emphasis on creating his own interpretation of the information obtained. Achievement of the end of the study is based on the ability of students to use in real life.

4) Social-Psychological Perspective 

Social-Psychology is another form of teaching and learning instruction. This perspective is trying to see the consequences of the social organization of learning in the classroom.
Slavin trying to develop a cooperative learning device basically combines small group instruction learning, and rewards based on achievement of the group.

b. Learning Approach 

Instruction is a design environment for information and learning facilities. In this environment not only instructions are to play a role but also the technology, methods and media needed to inform and guide the students learn.
The design is based on cognitive psychology intruksional fewer than behavioral psychology. They are allowed to use their theories and strategies they encourage interaction among students. Learning tasks requiring problem solving, creative behavior or activities that support them well on cognitive intruksional approach.

c. Finding a Middle Way

Inspired by a little from the perspective of psychology, designers develop a good framework for an instruction. In the instructional pelatiha consisting of several perspectives:1) Active participation, effective learning to take place when students engage in meaningful tasks, the interaction with the study.2) exercise, new learning needed to be strengthened in a way, practice, especially in the context of a diverse, improving the ability of new knowledge, skills and attitudes.3) Individual differences, effective ways to improve the individual differences in shapes, materials and participation in different activities.4) Feedback, learners must know that what they learn in the right track, so it needs input.5) The context of realistic, we are thirsty can remember and apply knowledge in real life.6) social relations, acting as Baian of community education as a form of social support.

d. Philosophical Perspective in Teaching 
There are some observers who pick the argument that the use of excessive intruksional technologist in the classroom will take them as if they were a single machine to be themselves, because the use of technology will not humanize both of them, both teachers and learners.
However, the use of modern technology intruksional can distinguish from the others and humanizing to some extent the previous considerations can not be achieved.

Contrary to what some educators believe that humanize technology and can run together or separately in the same way. Intruksional use of technology will not prevent friendly relations of teachers and learners. Instead intruksional media and technology in the learning may help provide a conducive learning environment where students actively take part in it. When intruksional media and technology are used properly and creatively in the classroom, and this is a tool that is used once in a while as they wish, rather than the students.

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